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Multitenancy Can Have a 16:1 Cost Advantage Over Single-Tenant

Posted by Bob Warfield on October 28, 2007

Multitenancy is one of those things that has been more qualitative than quantitative.  True blue SaaS believers put it down as a must-have to even call an offering SaaS.  Those less devout are understandably somewhat skeptical.  The heretics will say that liberal use of modern virtualization technologies is good enough.  Everyone seems to agree that the purpose behind multitenancy is to lower costs for the SaaS vendor.  These savings are translated into lower costs to their customers and a better shot at profitability.

In this article, I wanted to try to quantify those savings as well as put forward a definition for multitenancy that I think is clearer than a lot of what I’ve seen out there.  You’ve got the short answer in the title of this post, but I’ll walk you through how I got to the 16:1 value. 

First, let’s try to get to a useful definition of multitenancy.  Wikipedia defines multitenancy as follows:

Multitenancy refers to the architectural principle, where a single instance of the software runs on a software-as-a-service (SaaS) vendor’s servers, serving multiple client organizations (tenants). Multitenancy is contrasted with a multi-instance architecture where separate software instances (or hardware systems) are set up for different client organizations. With a multitenant architecture, a software application is designed to virtually partition its data and configuration so that each client organization works with a customized virtual application instance.

This definition is fine up to the point where the word “partition” comes up with a link back to a discussion of LPARs which are defined as follows:

In computing, a logical partition, commonly called an LPAR, is a subset of computer’s hardware resources, virtualized as a separate computer. In effect, a physical machine can be partitioned into multiple LPARs, each housing a separate operating system.

There is a lot of confusion here that comes from attaching a particular notion of how Multitenancy might be implemented (LPARs) with the concept itself.  I found the same thing reading SaaS-Man’s “Myths of Multitenancy” where the “myths” are based on particular implementation assumptions.  Let’s get one thing absolutely crystal clear before going further: there is no single implementation or architectural design pattern that can be called multitenancy.  Rather, multitenancy is an abstract concept largely rooted in benefits more than features.

To get away from implementation specific definitions (which are more examples than definitions), I am defining multitenancy as software that has the following properties from the perspective of three audiences seeking benefits:

For the SaaS Vendor:  Multitenancy is the ability to run multiple customers on a single software instance installed on multiple servers.  For the vendor,  operations can be performed at the level of instance, tenants, and users within a tenant.  This is done to increase resource utilization by allowing load balancing among tenants, and to reduce operational complexity and cost in managing the software to deliver the service.  For example, a patch can be easily rolled out to all tenants by patching a single instance instead of many.  Everyone’s data can be backed up in one operation by backing up a single instance.  The operations costs are then lower due to economies of scale and increased opportunities for automation.

For the SaaS Customer (a Tenant):  Multitenancy is transparent.  The customer seems to have an instance of the software entirely to themselves.  Most importantly, the customer’s data is secure relative to other customer’s data and customization can be employed to the degree the application supports it without regard to what other tenants are doing.  The only tangible manifestations of multitenancy are lower costs for the service, and better service levels because its easier for the service provider to deliver those levels.  The tenant will also want the ability to manage the system from their perspective (for example to manage security access among their users) and will want that to be as seamless as possible and certainly to never be impacted by other tenants.

For the SaaS User (one seat on the Tenant’s account):  Multitenancy is transparent.  They just see the application as a user of any application would. 

Further definiton around multitenancy gets into the realm of being too specific about implementations.  For example, there are folks who say multitenancy means an application won’t be highly customizable because it’s too hard to build.  It makes no sense to generalize about the properties of multitenancy on such a basis, so it should be left aside as something that relates to specific examples of multitenancy.  There are implementations of customizability that are incompatible with multitenancy, but I know it is entirely possible to build multitenant systems that are highly customizable if the proper metadata approaches and other customization tools are provided.  Eventually, I will write a post about how this can be done.

The details of a particular implementation of multitenancy can vary greatly from one vendor to the next.  It makes sense the details should vary just as Enterprise apps vary a lot from one domain to the next.  For example, most web software vendors like Twitter probably don’t think of themselves as Multitenant architectures, but they are with the degenerate case that a User and a Tenant are one and the same.

I bring up the odd example of Twitter because it is the start of one dimension that matters a lot for implementation choices:  number of users per tenant.  A single user per tenant is a nice fine grained unit.  In many ways it may be the easiest to create because load balancing and partitioning are so much simpler, although I don’t want to say they are simple by any means.  This is a meaningful class of SaaS, BTW, because most desktop productivity applications can be modeled in this way, so it’s relevant to Google’s view of what SaaS is, for example.

Next up would be to have a fairly small number of users per tenant. had an average of 21 seats per tenant when I recently did the calculation.  That’s very small.  If you are sure you’ll never have many more than that based on the nature of your application, you can largely treat this the same way as one per tenant with a few tools to make it easy to manage small groups of users as a unit.  Of course, Salesforce can’t do that, because they also have much larger customers than just 21 seats!

Let’s jump over to the opposite end of the scale, because it is an interesting perspective too.  Suppose the application will average more like 1,000 or even more users per tenant.  Suddenly the server utilization and automation arguments are a little bit less valuable.  We have 50x larger tenants than in the Salesforce example.  We have 50x fewer customers to reach the same level of seats.  Whatever repetitive tasks we may perform for every tenant have to be done 50x less often even if we do them manually on a tenant-by-tenant basis.  Is this an argument not to go multitenant for such applications?  Possibly, because multitenancy offers a lot less benefit to such a domain.  One could envision that virtualization and a lot of automated scripting could get us nearly all the way there, at least until we had so many of these large customers that it made sense to do something more sophisticated.  Interestingly, several SaaS vendors I talked to have mentioned that the management overhead for a customer is nearly the same almost regardless of size.  There are some operations that are size dependent, but a properly implemented SaaS app pushes as much of that sort of thing as possible back to the customer as self-service (for example, to manage accounts and passwords).

Okay, we have a working definition that’s very simple:

Multitenancy is the ability to run multiple customers on a single software instance installed on multiple servers to increase resource utilization by allowing load balancing among tenants, and to reduce operational complexity and cost in managing the software to deliver the service.  Tenants on a multitenant system can operate as though they have an instance of the software entirely to themselves which is completely secure and insulated from any impact by other tenants.

Let’s turn now to the question of estimating the cost benefits of a well constructed multitenant architecture.  I’ve collected statistics on the relative cost to provide service for a number of public SaaS offerings for which such numbers are available:

Cost of SaaS 

We can see a mix of business SaaS like as well as web software companies like Google.  The first takeaway is that costs can vary quite a lot from one company to the next.  This is a function of pricing (selling too cheaply relative to the costs of delivery raises the %) and of internal operating efficiencies.  It’s hard to draw much conclusion, so let’s just work from the average of 26%.  An average web software company can deliver $1 of revenue for about 25 cents spent on hosting and managing their software for customers.

Lest you be thinking that all of the Cost of Service is hardware, let’s consider the case of Google.  Gartner reports that runs on the order of 1 million commodity class machines at this time.  Even if we assume they’re replaced annually, which they aren’t, that places cost per machine at $4,225 and the same report says they spend about $1,800 on a machine, storage, and all hardware.  The rest of the cost is for network connectivity, datacenter physical space, and personnel to run all those little boxes.

I want to emphasize that we absolutely can’t be too cavalier about even the 1,000 seat per tenant case when it comes to operational efficiency.  At $50/seat, that customer is paying $600K of revenue per year.  If the SaaS vendor wants to spend 25% to deliver the service, they can afford to pay no more than $150K to keep the lights on for that large customer.  Much of that will have to go for the hosting (hardware, network charges, and datacenter).  What’s left is a fraction of an IT person for operations on this tenant.  Even a vendor with such gross numbers of seats per tenant must therefore be able to deliver the service very efficiently.  Considerable automation of manual tasks will be necessary.

Now let’s consider the costs of running traditional Enterprise on-premises software.  Talking to SaaS vendors about how they came by their pricing, there is a rule of thumb that says the annual contract cost of a SaaS offering is roughly equal to the perpetual license most vendors sell.  Oracle’s Timothy Chou says the industry averages are that it costs 4x the license per year to run traditional enterprise software.  Can you see how I got to a 16x operational efficiency advantage for SaaS over conventional enterprise on-premises?  Take Chou’s 4x and divide by 26% and you’re there.

I walk away from this analysis with two big takeaways.

First, SaaS vendors need to manage by the numbers pretty tightly when it comes to the cost of service delivery.  They’re very unlikely to hit the 26% average on their first release, and I’ve been told this by a number of young SaaS companies and their venture capitalists.  That means being on a continuous program of improvement.  If it was me, I’d want a dashboard of live metrics around these costs that really kept it top of mind together with trending so I could be sure costs were moving in the right direction.  Achieving a 16x advantage over conventional thinking is not a seat of the pants project.  It’s going to take some real effort and some real smarts to get there.   

Second, this advantage is an interesting concept for SaaS customers to contemplate.  Delivering a service efficiently means not screwing it up.  Escalations and problems will drive such costs through the roof.  The SaaS vendor really only has the choice of making the customer happy, and doing so in a highly automated way that ensures the happiness is no accident.  Isn’t this really the lesson Japanese car manufacturers used to become so successful?  Focusing on quality actually lowers costs.  SaaS vendors live and breath exactly this because they’re financially incented to do so.  On-premises vendors, by contrast, get paid a lump sum up front and don’t have this operational efficiency monkey on their backs.  The customer bears that cost, and apparently, it is a cost that’s 16x greater.

Is it any wonder SaaS vendors see multitenancy as their Holy Grail?

22 Responses to “Multitenancy Can Have a 16:1 Cost Advantage Over Single-Tenant”

  1. […] Read the rest of this great post here […]

  2. […] more here […]

  3. […] the full story here This entry was posted on Sunday, October 28th, 2007 at 10:20 am and is filed under architectural […]

  4. dentrekin said

    We have been running a Multi-tenant SaaS application since 2001, and the focus on operating costs is essential. This is especially true if, as most strategic marketers would say, “competition determines price.” In other words, you can’t just charge more if it costs you more.

    I would emphasize the point that multi-tenant strategies vary considerably, and to discuss only the technology costs misses the fact that over 70% of COGS for SaaS is people. So at the risk of turning the cost argument on its head, you have to run ALL the numbers to see the true costs.

    Demian Entrekin

  5. smoothspan said

    Demian, welcome, and thanks for joining the conversation!

    You could not be more right about the people costs. Building automation to reduce those costs is probably the single biggest thing a SaaS vendor can do to keep it under control. A winning multitenant architecture includes a plan for how to do this from the get-go.



  6. […] on SaaS, Mashups, and Web Softwar…tps777 on SaaS, Mashups, and Web Softwar…smoothspan on Multitenancy Can Have a 16:1 C…dentrekin on Multitenancy Can Have a 16:1 […]

  7. […] Read the rest of this great post here […]

  8. […] Dustin Burg wrote an interesting post today!.Here’s a quick excerptThis is done to increase resource utilization by allowing load balancing among tenants, and to reduce operational complexity and cost in managing the software to deliver the service. For example, a patch can be easily rolled out to all … […]

  9. sbobrowski said

    Please take a moment to check your links before you associate someone’s name with a blog! I Steve Bobrowski (also notice the correct spelling on my name) did not write “Myths of Multitenancy” at My blog is Thanks for correcting this.

  10. smoothspan said

    Steve, my appologies. The link is updated. I originally got it from you on the Appliances post:

    The names looked so similar and you were so in agreement with the sentiment that I jumped to the wrong conclusion.

    Mea Culpa,


  11. […] highest cost IT operations jobs around, database administration, and your costs are even lower.  Remember my analysis that shows SaaS vendors need to achieve 16:1 operations cost advantages over conventional software […]

  12. […] service qui bénéficie de l’outil de production. Songez-y, un rapide calcul fait par Bob Warfield et on arrive à un ratio de prix de 1:16 à l’avantage d’une solution en mode SaaS […]

  13. […] semaine, je présente un post qui m’a marqué. Cette fois-ci, Bob Warfield livre sur  Smoothspan  sa vision des coûts supportés par les éditeurs […]

  14. […] can add services, it creates a secondary problem that the cost to deliver the service is higher.  We’ve talked before about how much more efficient SaaS players have to be than conventional users of Enteprise […]

  15. sganesan said

    Very interesting article…I have read quite a few articles about SaaS architecture but do you have anything to share about how a business intelligence application can be configured for multiple tenants. For example, Tenant1 logs on to a business intelligence application/dashboard to get a different look and feel from Tenant2. Are there any software that can integrate to open source BI tools out there that can help build this kind of configuration?

  16. smoothspan said

    Sganesan, software is generally not “automatically” converted to multitenant. It either has it designed in from the beginning or it doesn’t.



  17. […] written about this in the past.  Given the typical $4 of annual IT cost per $1 of license on the perpetual model, SaaS […]

  18. […] SaaS Woes…jurquhart on SAP’s ByDesign SaaS Woes…SAP’s ByDesign… on Multitenancy Can Have a 16:1 C…smoothspan on Integration and Expertise […]

  19. […] -and- Part 2 of the Tool/Platform Rants)Well Done Google App Engine, Congratulations Python!Multitenancy Can Have a 16:1 Cost Advantage Over Single-TenantPractical Experiences With Never Rewriting […]

  20. […] is a big risk your costs will explode as each new tenant comes on-board. An article from Bob Warfield’s SmoothSpan blog makes this point […]

  21. […] dépenserait 14% de son CA pour le fonctionnement de son infrastructure SaaS (Source  Bob Warfield).CODA, ayant une tarification débutant à 125$/utilisateur/mois hors options consacrerait moins de […]

  22. […] is a big risk your costs will explode as each new tenant comes on-board. An article from Bob Warfield’s SmoothSpan blog makes this point […]

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